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Giles Rogers
Giles Rogers

Araucaria Excelsa


Araucaria heterophylla (synonym A. excelsa) is a species of conifer. As its vernacular name Norfolk Island pine (or Norfolk pine) implies, the tree is endemic to Norfolk Island, an external territory of Australia located in the Pacific Ocean between New Zealand and New Caledonia. It is not a true pine, which belong to the genus Pinus in the family Pinaceae, but instead is a member of the genus Araucaria, in the family Araucariaceae, which also contains the monkey-puzzle tree. Members of Araucaria occur across the South Pacific, especially concentrated in New Caledonia (about 700 km or 430 mi due north of Norfolk Island) where 13 closely related and similar-appearing species are found. It is sometimes called a star pine, Polynesian pine, triangle tree or living Christmas tree, due to its symmetrical shape as a sapling.




araucaria excelsa


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Araucaria heterophylla (synonym A. excelsa) is a distinctive conifer, a member of the ancient and now disjointly distributed family Araucariaceae. As its vernacular name Norfolk Island Pine implies, the tree is endemic to Norfolk Island, a small island in the Pacific Ocean between Australia, New Zealand and New Caledonia. The genus Araucaria occurs across the South Pacific, especially concentrated in New Caledonia (about 700 km due north of Norfolk Island) where 13 closely related and similar-appearing species...


Comparison between upper, middle and lower segments of semihardwood orthotropic stems of Araucaria excelsa R. Br. var. glauca in response to 2iP in the culture medium after 55 days. MNS/E represent mean number of shoots per explant and MLS/E represent mean length of shoots per explants


Shoots derived from main stem of A. excelsa R. Br. var. glauca. a and b: Abnormal shoots produced through upper segments in the medium supplemented with 1 and 1.25 μM 2iP, respectively. c and d: Abnormal shoots produced through lower segments in the medium supplemented with 1 and 1.25 μM 2iP, respectively. e and f: Axillary shoots produced after near to 55 days in the medium supplemented with 0.045 μM TDZ (e) and 0.5 μM 2iP (F). g: Rooted plantlet, 85 days after culturing the explants. h: Acclimatized A. excelsa R. Br. derived from orthotropic stem of 3 yr old mother plant. i: Acclimatized A. excelsa R. Br. after 12 month


The downside of plant tissue culture techniques is an unwanted microbial contamination. Elimination of contaminants is the first step of any successful investigation on plant tissue culture. Preliminary experiments on Araucaria excelsa R. Br. var. glauca (Norfolk-Island pine) (syn.: A. heterophylla) showed that most common decontaminants could not successfully eliminate the contamination. Therefore, nano silver (NS) colloids were evaluated for controlling contamination. Treatments were included soaking the explants in NS solution or adding NS to the culture medium. Explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with appropriate growth regulators for their establishment. Results showed that surface sterilization followed by treatment with 200 mg l-1 of NS with soaking time of 180 min reduced the bacterial contamination from 61.5% to 11.3% and adding 400 mg l-1 NS to the medium reduced the bacterial contamination from 81.25% to 18.75%. Nano silver could be applied without adverse effects on plant growth and development. This is the first report on in vitro establishment of A. excelsa R. Br. using NS to reduce bacterial infections.


Araucaria excelsa, or House pinet. The name suggests that this is a thorny tree, but the green Araucaria excelsa is very cuddly. Araucaria excelsa performs well in 14 to 27 cm pots. This subtropical evergreen has a symmetrical, pyramidal shape and remains compact indoors. At warm temperatures, Araucaria can be placed outside as well.


Araucaria heterophylla, as described in 1952 by (Richard Anthony Salisbury) João Manuel Antonio do Amaral Franco, in Anais. Instituto Superior de Agronomia, 19th edition, is commonly known as Norfolk Island pine. It is synonymous with A. excelsa (R. Br. ex Aiton) and sometimes called a star pine, triangle tree or living Christmas tree, due to its symmetrical shape as a sapling, although it is not a true pine. The epithet, heterophylla, or "different leaves" from the Latin language derives from the variation in the leaves between young and adult plants.


Kindly sponsored byHarriet TupperCreditsJohn Grimshaw, Ross Bayton & Tom Christian (2019)Recommended citationGrimshaw, J., Bayton, R. & Christian, T. (2019), 'Araucaria heterophylla' from the website Trees and Shrubs Online (treesandshrubsonline.org/articles/araucaria/araucaria-heterophylla/). Accessed 2023-04-01.GenusAraucariaCommon NamesNorfolk Island PineStar PineSynonymsAraucaria excelsa hort. non (Lamb.) R. Br.Species LinksOther taxa in genusAraucaria angustifoliaAraucaria angustifolia araucanaAraucaria araucanaAraucaria bidwilliiSpecies LinksOther taxa in genusAraucaria angustifoliaAraucaria angustifolia araucanaAraucaria araucanaAraucaria bidwilliiGlossaryGlossarydbhDiameter (of trunk) at breast height. Breast height is defined as 4.5 feet (1.37 m) above the ground.ReferencesReferencesDallimore, W. & Jackson, A.B. (1966). Handbook of Conifers, including GinkgoaceaeFarjon, A. (2017). A Handbook of the World's Conifers (2nd edition)Hill, K.D. (1998). PinophytaJohnson, O. (2007). Half-hardy Trees in Britain and IrelandSilba, J. (1986). Encyclopaedia ConiferaeCreditsCreditsJohn Grimshaw, Ross Bayton & Tom Christian (2019)Recommended citationGrimshaw, J., Bayton, R. & Christian, T. (2019), 'Araucaria heterophylla' from the website Trees and Shrubs Online (treesandshrubsonline.org/articles/araucaria/araucaria-heterophylla/). Accessed 2023-04-01.


Quantification of the phenolic content and evaluation of the antioxidant potential of some plants of gymnosperms were performed. The selected plants were Cycas revoluta male plant (Cycadaceae), Araucaria excelsa (Araucariaceae), Dioon edule Lindl. (Zamiaceae), and Cupressus sempervirens L. (Cupressaceae). The total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the total flavonoids content (TFC) was measured via complexation with aluminum chloride and the antioxidant activity was evaluated with DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay [1]. Among the tested plants, Cupressus sempervirens female cones showed the highest antioxidant activity (11.73 0.06 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/gm dry plant) while Araucaria excelsa leaves showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content (2.73 0.001 mg gallic acid equivalent and 4.2182 0.15 mg rutin equivalent/gm dry plant, respectively). Phytochemical investigation of Dioon edule leaves afforded the isolation of several biflavones and their methoxylated derivatives. 041b061a72


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